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History of Photography

Tales out of a box – A “Six-20 Popular Brownie” box!

A STORY OF LUCK & DEDUCTION FROM OUT OF A “LIGHT” BOX

Well after two separate visits to a pop-up shop of “odds and ends” in Paddington, Brisbane, I relented and bought a little “Six-20 Popular” Brownie camera earlier this month, only because the seller dropped the price from $30 to $20 without any prompting.

“A bargain!” I thought, especially as I ended up finding a roll of Kodak Verichrome Pan 620 film sitting inside it when I curiously peered inside the entrails of the camera to check it’s condition!!!

 You can see it right here!

IMG_0980

H’mm what were the chances of this film not being fogged or at the worst being completely exposed?! Well, considering that the film roll was still in place and it held out the promise of being a neat time capsule of images, I decided to send the film off for processing last week.

Camera Research

Whilst waiting for the week to pass by, I researched the camera on the “The Brownie Camera Page” which is the bee’s knees of information on Brownie Box Cameras and found out the following:

  • It was made by Kodak in England during 1939 – 1943, (certainly placing it in the ‘vintage’ category)
  • It is one of a very large succession of Kodak “Box”-shaped Brownie cameras,
  • It is encased in a grained black leatherette covered card body,
  • It has two reflecting mirror finders (although I can barely see through them due to built up dust and moth cases) – one used for portrait and the other for landscape compositions,
  • It used 620-sized roll film, which gave 8 exposures per roll, each 2 1/4″ x 3 1/4 inches in dimension. Nice one – except that 620 film is no-longer made!

 

I also managed to find some digitised copies of the manual:

620 Popluar Brownie

Self-evidently very simple in design and use, it has:

  • an exposure lever to take snapshots;
  • a “time” lever to keep the shutter open for longer time periods;
  • a positive meniscus glass lens;
  • two catches that hold the body together; and
  • a simple spring-loaded single shutter.

It is not able to focus, has no aperture, only has a single-speed shutter, can not be mounted on a tripod, and has  an approximate worth of US$15-$25 (so I did get a bargain!). I also found out that 120 film has the same negative size as the 620 film is still available (in production since 1902!). It can be used in the Brownie if it is respooled onto the 620-sized spool – in a dark room or a light-proof film changing bag.

 

The Moment of Truth

So last Monday, after collecting the developed negative and CD onto which the images were scanned, I received a nice surprise when I looked at the CD contents on my computer screen to reveal – 6 well-exposed black & white shots!

Here they are:

Box Brownie Aug15-collage_Vsml

First up I must confess that the images do not belong to another lost Vivian Maier collection. Although the images are well exposed they are grainy and a bit fuzzy (some out-of-focus and/or movement blur is apparent) and besides that, the Rolleiflex series camera Maier used 120 roll film, not 620.

However, the following details could be made out:

  •  2x images of a  bridge over water  with cars crossing it;
  •  An out of focus image of a seated woman with wind blowing her dress;
  •  A mid-century-looking building with letters “RSSAILA” painted on a wall of it, and “PT. Augusta Sub Branch” signage atop the building;
  •  A street scene with “E.H Jones & Son” sign visible below a balcony with parked cars;
  •  Street scene with a 2-storey classical building with street signage “YOUNG & GORDO…” with cars parked out in the street on a bright sunny day.

Enlarging the images on the computer screen, enlisting the help of my keen-eyed daughter and performing a bit of Google sleuthing, we were able to fathom that all the photos were taken in Port Augusta, South Australia some time in the 1950’s – 1960’s.

Cold Case Detective Work

Here is the list of evidence we used to reach our conclusion.

      1. RSSAILA = “Returned Soldier’s Sailor’s and Airmen’s Imperial League of Australia“, Port Augusta Sub Branch Augusta, South Australia.

There is a RSL Port Augusta sub branch building currently standing at 17 Fulham Rd, but it is a modern brick building. The original building is pictured as being located on a corner (an a neighbouring block on the corner of Fulham Rd and the Augusta Princess Highway stands empty). Was this the original site of the RSSAILA or was it located elsewhere in Port Augusta? An inquiry to the RSL has been made to verify this.

Box Brownie Aug15-0004

2. Young & Gordon store, 7 – 11 Commercial Road, Port Augusta

The inscription: “Bignell & Young Importers Establish’d 1867[ii]” is still visible on the central pediment of the building which is of Italianate architectural style, with the façade decorated with Corinthian columns. Full plate glass windows were used on the frontage of both the upper and ground floors – hence the use of blinds to keep out the sun (they are drawn down in the image below).

Box Brownie Aug15-0006

Parked out the front of this building are two FJ Holden sedans[i] which were produced in Australia from 1953 to 1957 dating this image to the late ’50’s to mid ’60’s.

As you can see from the two views outside the store today, that the building is still in good condition, although the upper storey looks vacant (look carefully and you’ll see that the blinds are open and tattered).

Young-Gordon view 1 Fully grown gum trees stand at the front of the pale-pink painted building (now occupied by “Target”), but the white painted water hydrant is still stands on the street (behind the second white car in the above image).

Young-Gordon view 2

The single storey building also used to be Young & Gordon’s store in days past, but not any longer.

Young-gordon view3

Young & Gordon Ltd Store Port Augusta –  note no urns/vases along the parapet.

[Source SA Memory – State Library of South Australia: Image BRG 209/37/8)

Young and Gordon was an influential business and well-known department store located in Port Augusta. Considered to be the biggest department store outside of Adelaide its origins began when storekeeper Francis Bignell took over the Port Augusta drapery business of Tassie & Co. in 1867, and later entered a partnership with Thomas Young (1844-1913) as “Bignell & Young”, merchants and forwarding agents, also actively trading in drapery, groceries and hardware through northern South Australia. The partnership was dissolved in 1881 when Bignell retired.

Young then entered into a new partnership with Robert Gordon, trading as “Young and Gordon”. They sold drapery, millinery, dressmaking, tailoring, clothing, footware, grocery, produce, ironmongery, glassware, earthernware, wine and spirits[vii].

Young-gordon sign1

A typical Young & Gordon Advertising banner c.1909 [Source:Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta[iv]]

The business became Young & Gordon Ltd., in 1920. Descendants of Thomas Young managed the business in succession: O.J. Young (1884-1956) then Peter Young (d.1987).

Young-gordon view4

View c.1909 of the Young & Gordon building (with urns atop the parapet) [Source: Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta[iii]] The horse-drawn carts outnumbered the cars then.

 

Young-gordon card1

A coloured lithograph showing a view along Commercial Road with the premises of Young & Gordon on the right.c.1897.

[Source: ‘Port Augusta and Quorn Dispatch’[v].]

Young-gordon view5

View of the “Young & Gordon (late Bignell & Young) store” c1885State Library of South Australia Pictorial Collection Image No. B 7907.[vi]

 The firm continued to grow despite economic hard times including drought and depression. The firm and store existed for well over a century before selling in 1980 to Demasius Limited[viii].

Thomas Young

Mr Thomas Young one of the founders (c.1909)[Image source [Source: ‘Port Augusta and Quorn Dispatch[ix]]

 

3. 20 Commercial Road Building, Port Augusta

Taken on a bright sunny day, close to midday with cars parked in the street and a few people moving along it.

Box Brownie Aug15-0005

View to the southeast along 20 Commercial Road with prominent “EH Jones & Sons” sign (who were manufacturers of shoes and handbags, c 1950’s). Note the dark-coloured drainpipe and drainpipe header (top left). A fence sign ending in “..HISKY” suggests the word “Whisky” and the photo was taken at some elevation above the road surface.

20 Commercial Rd View 1

Almost the same view today (but from street level), showing the same two-storey building with painted masonry walls with green iron latticework on the balcony. Amazingly the drainpipe and drainpipe header (top centre left)  are still present but are now painted cream. The once straight and linear road kerbs have been reshaped to make speed-reducing curves and parking bays in the distance.

Built mid/late 1800’s this commercial premises has passed through a number of owners, and now houses Ozzies and Wendy’s food businesses [x]

20 Commercial Rd View 2

 

4. Commercial Road Vista (various buildings & views)

A mixed combo view looking to the southeast along Commercial Street! I created this using a bit of photoshop ingenuity to join the two B&W images.

In the foreground 20 Commercial Road is on the left and the 2-storey Young & Gordon building is on the right. In the centre of the image, on the right-hand side of the street, are a few buildings and shop fronts that are still recognisable today.

Box Brownie Aug15-0006-2

 

Commercial Rd shops

In the middle distance on the right a couple of 2-storey white-painted buildings with shop fronts on the ground floor still exist at 31 & 33 Commercial Rd.

The next photo is taken of buildings slightly to the right and adjacent of the pale blue building above.

Symons shop

A c.1909 view of shops located between the pale blue shop (previous picture) and the double storey Young & Gordon Building showing W.Symons General Drapery & Importer Shop now the Port Augusta Newsagency at 19 Commercial Rd . [Image Source: Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta [xi]]

Further down the street a 2-storey building with a return verandah and balcony can be made out. It is the Flinders Hotel at 39 Commercial Road (on the corner with Chapel St).

Hotel Flinders view 1

Flinders Hotel, now surrounded by gum trees

This pub building was known as s Mackay’s when it was opened in June 1878[xii]. The name of the hotel changed in 1879 to the Flinders Family Hotel and later to the Hotel Flinders.

Hotel Flinders view 2

A 1909 view of an unpainted version of “The Flinders” Hotel showing its stone structure [Image Source: Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta [xiii]]

In 1909 the proprietress was a Mrs Mullen and “The Flinders” as it was then known,  was a hotel furnished with several pianos, two billiard tables and lit with acetylene gas  lamps. No wonder it was “A Favourite with Travellers”!

   

A Verandah With a View 

So where was the elevated vantage point that our unknown photographer used to capture the view of Commercial Street? In the approximate location where the photo was taken currently sits the contemporary single storey pub, the  “Tassie Tavern”.

It was built in 2009 on the site of the former Exchange Hotel (at 12 Commercial Street), which previusly was a 2-storey stone building with return verandah running along El Alamein Rd (formerly Tassie Street) and wrapping around the corner into Commercial Street, the place for a photographer to be, out of the heat of the midday sun!

 

Exchange hotel cornerA verandah with a view. A corner view of the Exchange Hotel from El Alamein Rd with Commercial Rd on the right. (Photo taken 18/08/1998 by Jon Graham).

Originally the pub was known as Payne’s Tavern then in 1879 as Taylor’s Hotel, and renamed Exchange in 1914. The original location of the hotel can be seen in the left hand image below and probably best explains the “(W)..HISKY” sign on the fence photographed in the the B&W view of the Building of 20 Commercial St.

Commercial St Aerial

Two aerial views of Commercial Street (centre) and El Alamein Rd (at bottom)

Left Image  May 2007 ; Right image October 2009

Key

Red dot – Exchange Hotel (left) now Tassie Tavern (right)

Orange dot – Ozzies & Wendy’s building at 20 Commercial Rd

Pink Dot – Young & Gordon Building (now a Target store) at 13 Commercial Rd

Blue dot  – Pt. Augusta Newsagency (formerly W. Symons store) at 17 Commercial Rd

Pale Blue dot – pale blue shop front at 27 Commercial Rd

Green dot – Two 2-storey buildings at 31 & 33 Commercial Rd

Yellow-orange dot – Flinders Hotel at 39 Commercial Rd

5. “Old” Great Western Bridge

Built in 1926 of timber with steel beams and the deck surfaced with asphalt, the “Old” Great Western Bridge opened on 6 July 1927[xiv] replacing a punt and ferry service[xv]. It served as a vehicular crossing that linked the east and west sides of the Spencer Gulf until it was replaced by a newer concrete bridge in the 1970’s.

It now functions as a pedestrian bridge for access and recreational use. During its time it was important in carrying both water pipe and electricity lines to Port Augusta from Whyalla.

 

Box Brownie Aug15-0002Box Brownie Aug15-0001

Compare our photographer’s views of the bridge (in these two images) with the postcard below. You can just see a jetty on the left, cars on the bridge and the low tide which is well out.

 

Great western bridge card

A postcard view of Great Western Bridge[xvi] and jetty built in 1878[xvii] on east side of the Gulf and viewed viewed from the south.

 Great western bridge aerial

Oblique aerial view to the north of the New Great Western Bridge and the older timber bridge to the north indicating the likely position of where the B&W images above were taken (close to where the jetty meets the eastern shore).

Note the Jetty to the south which appears in the postcard and on the very left edge of the composited box brownie image below is marked in both with red circle. The blue and purple dots correspond with those shown in the composite of the original black and white images below to give a sense of orientation.

Great western bridge composit

Great western bridge south

A view of the Old Western Bridge from the northwest shore looking back toward Port Augusta with cars travelling over the the “New” Great Western concrete bridge visible in the background.

6. Mystery woman

So we are left with an anonymous woman who looks to be relaxed with her eyes closed and enjoying the gusts of wind billowing her dress. She sits partly shaded on a wooden bench in front of a brick structure (park hut or enclosure) and in the background, vehicles can be seen with an intervening piece of dry flat ground with patchy grass cover.

I don’t know where this image was taken. Possibly somewhere along the banks of the Spencer Gulf, perhaps in a park on a sunny Sunday enjoying a weekend break. Was she a local, was she visiting?

Box Brownie Aug15-0003

I think I’ll take leave of her here in her relaxed, right-of-centre pose. Why bother her with questions of “Who?”, “What?” and “Where?” now?

I mean, would she be able to answer:

  1. Why did 60 or so years intervene before this roll of film was developed?
  2. Why were only 6-images taken and not the full roll of 8 exposures? [Was the photographer unhappy with a set of prints received while shooting this roll and simply gave up?]
  3. How did a camera ostensibly originating from Port Augusta come to rest in a pop-up shop in Paddington Brisbane?
  4. Who owned the camera?
  5. What happened to the owner of the camera?

 

References

[i] Holden FJ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holden_FJ accessed 17th August 2015.

[ii] Port Augusta – Local Heritage Survey.  PA4: Fosseys (Former Bignell and Young Store) pg 17.  Port Augusta City Council 2009.  http://www.portaugusta.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/REPA4794HeritageSurvey.pdf accessed 17th August 2015.

[iii] Robertson, J. Edward (1909). Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta : the seaside resort of South Australia. Adelaide J. Edward Robertson http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/209992534

[iv] Robertson, J. Edward (1909). Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta : the seaside resort of South Australia. Adelaide J. Edward Robertson http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/209992534

[v] Commercial Road, Port Augusts. Rider & Mercer lithographers, 1892 State Library of South Australia Pictorial Collection Image No. B 9293/28 http://www.catalog.slsa.sa.gov.au/record=b2113883~S1 accessed 17th August 2015.

[vi] Young & Gordon premises at Port Augusta. c.1885. State Library of South Australia Pictorial Collection Image No. B 7907. http://images.slsa.sa.gov.au/mpcimg/08000/B7907.htm accessed 17th August 2015.

[vii] Young & Gordon premises at Port Augusta. c.1885. State Library of South Australia Image No. B 7907, Catalogue entry http://www.catalog.slsa.sa.gov.au/record=b2038616~S1

[viii] Port Augusta Then and Now. Photographs of Young and Gordon’s store. On SA Memory South Australia: past and present, for the future. State Library of South Australia http://www.samemory.sa.gov.au/site/page.cfm?c=5856 accessed 17th August 2015.

[ix] Robertson, J. Edward (1909). Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta : the seaside resort of South Australia. Adelaide J. Edward Robertson http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/209992534

[x] Port Augusta – Local Heritage Survey.  PA5: Shops (Ozzies & Wendys) pg 21.  Port Augusta City Council 2009.  http://www.portaugusta.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/REPA4794HeritageSurvey.pdf accessed 17th August 2015.

[xi] Robertson, J. Edward (1909). Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta : the seaside resort of South Australia. Adelaide J. Edward Robertson http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/209992534

[xii] Port Augusta – Local Heritage Survey.  PA8: Hotel Flinders pg 27.  Port Augusta City Council 2009.  http://www.portaugusta.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/REPA4794HeritageSurvey.pdf accessed 17th August 2015.

[xiii] Robertson, J. Edward (1909). Prosperous Quorn and Port Augusta : the seaside resort of South Australia. Adelaide J. Edward Robertson http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/209992534

[xiv] Port Augusta – Local Heritage Survey.  PA2: ‘Old’ Great Western Bridge pg 11.  Port Augusta City Council 2009.  http://www.portaugusta.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/REPA4794HeritageSurvey.pdf accessed 17th August 2015.

[xv] EXTENSIVE REPAIRS TO BRIDGE. (1936, August 21).Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 – 1954), p. 1. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article95891812

[xvi] http://www.quicksales.com.au/ad/vintage-unused-murray-views-no-7-great-western-bridge-port-augusta-south-australia-postcard-13-8cm-x-8-3cm/11240305 accessed 17th August 2015.

[xvii] Port Augusta – Local Heritage Survey.  PA3: Jetty pg 14.  Port Augusta City Council 2009.  http://www.portaugusta.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/REPA4794HeritageSurvey.pdf accessed 17th August 2015.

 

 


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Constructing Worlds: Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age

The Barbican Art Gallery in London is currently showcasing a landmark exhibition of eighteen outstanding photographers covering the time period from the 1930s to the present day who have influenced the way we view  20th and 21st century architecture on a global stage.

It investigates why architects, such as Charles and Ray Eames and Le Corbusier, used the power of the photographic image to promote their vision of Modernist architecture. Images range from skyscrapers in New York, decaying colonial structures in the Congo,  glamorous post-war suburban homes of California, to the modern towers of Venezuela.

Fengjie III (Monument to Progress and Prosperity), Chonqing Municipality, 2007 Picture credits © Nadav Kander. Courtesy Flowers Gallery.

Featuring over 250 works by:

photographers: Berenice Abbott / Iwan Baan / Bernd and Hilla Becher / Hélène Binet / Walker Evans / Luigi Ghirri / Andreas Gursky / Lucien Hervé / Nadav Kander / Luisa Lambri / Simon Norfolk / Bas Princen / Ed Ruscha / Stephen Shore / Julius Shulman / Thomas Struth / Hiroshi Sugimoto / Guy Tillim;

and

architects: Le Corbusier / Frank Lloyd Wright / Minoru Yamasaki / Luis Barragán / Aldo Rossi / Pierre Koenig / Charles and Ray Eames / Daniel Libeskind.

This exhibition highlights the power of photography to reveal hidden truths in our society. The exhibition runs until  11 January 2015.

While you are there you may as well take advantage of the Architecture Tour of the Barbican Centre a unique brutalist architectural endeavour.

(more…)


The development of print photography in the 1800’s.

Today is the age of digital photography and the computer. As a child of the 1960’s I grew up with film negatives and darkrooms, but in the nascent or pioneering age of photography around the 1830’s,  paper was the negative! Things were just as magical and astonishing then as  they were for me growing up with wet chemical processing and seeing printed photographic images appear under a red safe light in a darkroom! Paper? Who would have thought it could hold an image?!

Photography rapidly developed during the nineteenth century and the magic of combining physics and chemistry was quickly perfected. Many different processes were experimented with and many patented by the gifted and artistic photographic practitioners of the time, some of them inventors. As Freddy Langer says in the book “Icons of Photography – The 19th Century” that images produced during that time “… represent the foundation of our collective visual memory”.  In fact they were captured using a number of technologies and heliographs, daguerreotypes, calotypes and tintypes, albumen, collodion, and platinum prints were all used prior to 1900. It is heartening to know there are quite a number of amateur groups who are keeping the tradition of these old-time printing technologies alive today.

Whoa, “albumen” print photography? I had not heard of that before.  In fact it was process that was a bit like walking on eggshells using a complex and careful recipe to make positive paper prints.

In fact, the recipe uses cold egg whites (“albumen”), distilled water and ammonium chloride to make an emulsion. The mixture was frothed, strained and allowed to settle and clarify for a few days before floating one piece of paper (sometimes cotton paper ) at a time onto the mixture for it to take to the paper – a procedure that had to be slow and painfully precise to get the right results. It produced a positive print on paper, which in earlier print versions of this process had highlights that turned yellow; later prints were toned to give a purplish brown tint which reduced the fading of the image.

This process was modified during the 1850’s to early 1860. Albumen was coated onto plate glass to make sticky film to which silver halide powder could be applied, resulting in a “wet plate” glass negative.

The albumen process was replaced by the  ‘wet plate collodion’ or ‘wet collodion‘ method invented by Frederick Scott Archer in the early 1850’s and used to make glass negatives.  Collodion is a syrupy flammable  solution of pyroxylin in alcohol and ether that replaced the emulsions that were purely made from egg whites. Collodion is not sensitive to red light but to blue (read UV) light so exposing for it is a challenge!

The collodion process almost entirely replaced the first practical photographic process, the daguerreotype. A modification of the collodion the “Ambrotype” (named after James Ambrose Cutting) arose in 1854 where this process used the collodion image as a positive, instead of a negative. An ambrotype is easily distinguished from a daguerreotype because its surface is not reflective like that of a daguerreotype surface. During the 1880’s the collodion process, was largely replaced by gelatin dry plates—glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halides suspended in gelatin.

Below is an image of an c.1861 albumen print of a famous person (better known wearing a stovepipe hat and a beard!):

                               Image Source – Library of Congress:American Memory

I find the infancy of photography fascinating as a lot of people were experimenting (notably Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre) with how to permanently capture sunlight to make a picture. In 1835 Henry Fox Talbot used paper sensitized with silver chloride, which darkened in proportion to its exposure to light. Around 1837 Daguerre invented the Daguerrotype a direct positive made in the camera on a silvered copper plate.

Below is a daguerreotype and the first authenticated image of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. Congressman-elect in 1846  by Nicholas H. Shepherd:

File:Abelincoln1846.jpeg                                                                                           Image Source –Wikimedia commons

But let’s go back to the development of the paper negative.  The first time I saw one of these was a facsimile copy of a “Botanical Specimen” made by Henry Fox Talbot in 1835(?) in the book “The Waking Dream: Photography’s First Century”  What attracted me to the  18.3 x 10.7 cm image was that it had a beautiful soft lilac tone – something that I had not seen before, and that it made the image  soft and subtle as well as striking at the same time due to its overall tone.

[Botanical Specimen] William Henry Fox Talbot (British, 1800–1877) Date: ca. 1835:

[Botanical Specimen]                                                         Image Source – Metropolitan Museum of Art

It was in early 1834, preceded by Josiah Wedgwood and Joseph Necephore Niépce,  that Henry Fox Talbot began using silver nitrate in his early and groundbreaking innovative experiments, successfully developing a crude photographic printing process which he called “photogenic drawing” (or photogram). Basically it was a camera-less salted paper print made of letter paper (something plentiful and handy) that was coated with a solution of table salt, allowed to dry, and then re-coated by brushing with silver nitrate solution which reacted with the table salt to produce silver chloride; which was more light sensitive. A  strong solution of table salt or potassium iodide in which the prints were bathed acted to stabilise the photographic image after exposure to produce a tonally reversed, or negative print.

The solution to re-reverse the tonality of a print was relatively easy to come by.  In early 1935 Talbot simply  sandwiched the negative  in contact with a fresh piece of sensitized paper and exposed them to sunlight to make a positive print. As it turned out, this method was not a resounding success as Talbot’s photographic materials were usually unable to produce negatives with sufficient density to allow the successful printing of positives.

However for the next few ensuing years Talbot further experimented with the camera devising ways of making negatives. His first  results produced camera negatives, that were quite small and required exposures of  1- 2 hrs in strong sunlight. His attempts to produce better paper negatives by substituting silver bromide for silver chloride also produced images that were too faint to be useful.

By mid-1840 Talbot had formulated a new chemical procedure for making negatives. He produced sheets of  “iodized paper” by brushing solutions of potassium iodide and silver nitrate onto paper to making a bright yellow coating of silver iodide (which weirdly was quite insensitive to light). However these sheets provided the advantage where they could be made and stored many months in advance of when they were needed. When required to make a camera negative, the iodized paper was brushed with “gallo-nitrate of silver” solution (a mix of silver nitrate, acetic, and gallic acids, to act as an accelerator), and then while still moist, put into the camera.

Using this method camera exposures were greatly reduced to a few seconds to a couple of minutes. Once exposed the sheet was rebrushed with  gallo-nitrate of silver solution in a darkroom until a negative was developed.  This negative could then be used as a “master” from which many positive prints could be made. Talbot called this new process the “calotype” which he patented in February 1841.  Talbot further refined the calotype process by improving the translucency of  the Calotype negative by waxing it (also increasing the resolution of print detail).  The calotype became popular and superceded the  daguerreotype.

Another interesting print development was the “cyanotype“. This procedure was discovered in 1842 by scientist and astronomer Sir John Herschel which produced beautiful “blueprints” as was a means of  reproducing notes and diagrams. The blue colour imparted to the print was due to the water insoluble prussian blue (or iron cyanide) left behind in the paper; hence the name cyan (or blue) – in “cyanotype” and not due to the iron cyanide compounds used!

Cyanotypes were made by printing on any surface capable of soaking up the iron solution such as watercolor paper, cotton, wool and even gelatin on nonporous surfaces. A positive image is produced by exposing the cyanotype paper to a source of ultraviolet light (such as sunlight). This was originally done by contact printing an object on the cyanotype paper such as seaweed or shells to create a photogram (a photographic image made without a camera by placing objects directly onto the surface of a light-sensitive material such as photographic paper and then exposing it to light to produce a negative shadow image).

photogram of Algae, made by Anna Atkins as part of her 1843 book, Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions, the first book composed entirely of photographic images.

File:Anna Atkins algae cyanotype.jpg                                                                                       Image Source – Wikimedia Commons

Many art schools still use this process today on woven fabrics to make lovely wearable and fashionable scarves and assorted garments.

Print photography has traveled along many and varied paths! Amazing indeed!